Read more about insect sub-classes

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ParaneopteraHigher insects, with mostly incomplete metamorphosis, where a nymph generally resembles the adult.

At first sight the Paraneoptera might appear to consist of a rather disparate group of insect orders, namely the true bugs, lice, book lice and thrips, but the monophyly of this group is generally accepted on both morphological and molecular characters.

The exact relationships between the constituent orders are not as clear, though the Psocoptera and Phthiraptera probably form a monophyletic pair, the superorder Psocodea.

There is even some controversial evidence that the Psocoptera may not be monophyletic, and that the Phthiraptera evolved from a psocopteran subgroup.

Whether the Thysanoptera are more closely related to these, or to the Hemiptera, is not certain, but some authors combine them with the Hemiptera in the superorder Condylognatha.

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Insect orders in this sub-class

Juvenile vegetable bug on passion fruit in Croatia Credit Ruth Siller
True bugs
Pediculus capitis the Human head-louse Credit Peter Barnard
Sucking and biting lice
Psococeratis gibbosa the large British species Credit Roger Key
Booklice and barklice
Microscope slide preparation of thrips Credit Luis Fernandez Garcia
Identification help