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Following the latest government announcement concerning the current Covid-19 pandemic the Society headquarters at Mansion House has now closed.

Where possible emails will be monitored, any urgent enquiries should be forwarded to info@royensoc.co.uk

Membership applications will be put on hold until further notice.

Our "identify that insect" service will continue, but our Director of Science cannot accept any physical samples to inspect during this time. identifythatinsect@royensoc.co.uk

Our Librarian will not have access to our collections from home, but will be happy to try and locate references available to download from the internet. val@royensoc.co.uk

All events and meetings have been cancelled until further notice https://www.royensoc.co.uk/events

We hope that everyone stays well and we hope that normal business can resume soon for everyone, thank you for your understanding during this difficult time that the world finds itself in.

Kirsty Whiteford - Registrar

Endopterygota

All these higher insects have a well-defined metamorphosis from larva via a pupa to adult, hence the alternative name of Holometabola, meaning a complete metamorphosis. Each stage of the life cycle is morphologically (and usually biologically) quite distinct, and there is no sign of the wings developing in the larvae; this explains the name Endopterygota, meaning internal wings. All the other winged insects, now in the Palaeoptera, Polyneoptera and Paraneoptera, were formerly grouped as the Hemimetabola or Exopterygota on the grounds that they have no metamorphosis, the wings gradually developing externally throughout the nymphal stages. However, this is clearly a plesiomorphy and the paraphyletic group Exopterygota is no longer used; its inadequacy is emphasised by the pupal stages seen in groups such as the Coccidae (Hemiptera) and the Thysanoptera. There are several subgroups within the Endopterygota, though not all are accepted universally. The Neuroptera, Megaloptera and Raphidioptera are usually grouped within the Neuropterida, and these may form the sister group of the Coleoptera (and possibly Strepsiptera). The Hymenoptera may have a similar relationship with the Panorpoid orders (Diptera, Lepidoptera, Mecoptera, Siphonaptera and Trichoptera). The Mecoptera and Siphonaptera (Mecopterida) may be combined with the Diptera in the Antliophora, and the Lepidoptera and Trichoptera are often united within the Amphiesmenoptera, despite their very different life histories. It is clear that these supra-ordinal groupings need more rigorous examination and definition before they can be adopted as formal taxa.

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